Background; Despite the various pharmacological agents and insulin treatment, still, there is lack of an effective and therapeutic treatment for diabetes. The present study investigated the possible therapeutic role of SPX in glucose homeostasis both functionally and structurally in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.
Methods; Male Wistar albino rats(n=28) were randomly divided into the control(n=4), diabetes mellitus(DM+saline;1mL/kg), DM+S10(SPX;10 µg/kg/Ml), DM+S30(SPX; 30 µg/kg/mL) and DM+S100 (SPX; 100 µg/kg/mL). Diabetes was induced by administering a single dose of STZ (35mg/kg, i.p. Blood and pancreatic tissue samples were taken for insulin level measurements by ELISA. Liver and muscle tissue samples were taken for glycogen measurement. Histopathological changes in liver, muscle and pancreas tissues were examined. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, and the Mann-Whitney-U test was used for multiple comparisons.
Results; STZ-induced diabetes increased blood and urine glucose levels in the DM group as compared to the control group and significantly decreased with 10 mg/kg dose of SPX treatment. Glucose loss rate (K value) in insulin sensitivity measurements was lowered by STZ-induced diabetes (8.030) vs the control group (9.973) witha weak negative correlation (R=-0.1786). Glycogen content in liver and muscle tissues has declined, and SPX limited the decrease in hepatic glycogen levels in the DM+S10 group. SPX treatment reduced the degeneration levels and tissue damage in all tissues.
Conclusions; Our findings indicated that SPX has a regulatory role in glucose homeostasis via insulin secretion, glycogen metabolism, and blood glucose regulation in a dose-dependent manner.